The concept of a zone defense is simple enough to understand. Playing a zone defense means that each defender guards a particular zone on the court, as opposed to man-to-man defense where each player guards a particular offensive player.
However, there are ongoing debates about how best to implement a zone defense in the course of a basketball game.
Here are three common zone defenses and their advantages and disadvantages.
The most typical type of zone defense is called the 2-3 zone. In other words, two defenders situate closer to the half court line and are charged with guarding opponents that enter those regions.
At the same time, three more defenders, usually the center and forwards, line up parallel to the baseline to protect the key, baseline and corners.
A 2-3 zone is probably the easiest to learn for young kids, because of its simplicity. Yet, it can be very effective if competing against a team that has trouble shooting from the outside.
If an opponent has a post player who has a decided advantage in the paint, playing a 2-3 zone might not be a bad idea.
The term "packing it in" sometimes accompanies this type of zone, because it enables every defender to rotate to the paint in order to assistance in guarding the basket.
There are two major weaknesses to this zone. The first weakness is the high post. Because the defense's guards must focus on the exterior and ballhandlers and the forwards and center are busy protecting the low block and baseline areas, the high post tends to get overlooked.
If the center comes up to guard a player with the ball in the high post, that would free up the block and potentially the baseline as well. The other weakness of a 2-3 zone is that outside shooters can get a lot of wide open looks.
Therefore, the best way to break this type of zone down from an offensive standpoint is to advantage perimeter shooters and/or work the ball through the high post. Ideally, a tall forward or center who could pass well would be the offensive player at the high post.
The 1-3-1 zone is often used if the opponent has a big man who likes to penetrate or float around the perimeter rather than post deep on the block.
The idea is that by lining up three defenders the width length of the court at the free throw line level, those defenders will be able to shadow that player more and thereby make it more difficult for guards to get him or her the ball.
Another reason to go with a 1-3-1 zone is to halfcourt trap. With one player greeting the opposing ballhandler at half court and attempting to force him or her to one side or the other, the wing players of the "3" are poised to meet that ballhandler as he or she is pushed toward the sideline in a trap defense.
The reason that the defense wants to guide the ballhandler toward the sideline is because the sideline and the halfcourt line serve as a third and fourth defense.
Once the player crosses the line, he or she cannot go back without committing and over-and-back penalty.
The non-trapping 1-3-1 zone leaves the baseline wide open. If the offense can get past the middle three defenders, a player maneuvering the baseline only has one defender to beat.
Moreover, if that defender has to help out on someone else, then that leaves the baseline offensive player wide open.
The trapping 1-3-1 zone is risky for the defense. On the one hand, it can potential cause more turnovers and puts pressure on the opposition's main ballhandler.
On the other hand, if the offense can break it down, it means that a lot of players could be open for a high percentage shot.
The way to break down this type of passing zone is not to panic, make effective passes and anticipate the trap.
In addition, taking the ball to any corner in a trapping zone is suicide. Keeping the ball moving and not panicking will force the defense to fall back from trapping.
Sometimes referred to as a "box and one," because it frees up one defender to focus on one particular player. In a box and one defense, four players make a box surrounding the key, while one player "chases" a particular offensive player.
That player is usually the opponent's best player and has been causing significant problems, or has the potential to cause significant problems.
Like most zone defenses, outside shooting is the best way to break down the 1-2-2 zone.
Zones are a great opportunity to show opponents different defensive looks in the course of a game. They are also great when competing against teams that are not effective shooting from the outside. A common misconception is that zone defenses are less work for defenders than man-to-man defense.
Though there may be less running, the exact opposite is true in terms of thinking on the spot and having to understand more about positioning and spacing. Zone defenses require practice and communication in order to be effective and fluid.
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